In the past few decades ITC technologies have begun to penetrate various areas of social life. One of these areas is education. New forms of teaching and learning have appeared – for example, e-learning or virtual learning; this term refers to the specificity of the relationship between teacher and student. The work Authority in virtual education tries to uncover the characteristics of this relationship, which are substantially influenced by communication that excludes face-to-face contact. The author draws on a theoretical analysis (based primarily on the relevant works of Max Weber and JS Coleman), and on this basis she compiled the case study of the e-learning course Multiple Perspectives on Globalisation and Sustainable Development, which was organized by the Charles University Environment Centre. A content analysis was undertaken of the texts that were part of this course and which were published by both teachers and students in the Moodle electronic environment; the functions of this environment were also investigated. This analysis revealed who are the major players in the virtual relationship and thus shows the hidden structure of this relationship – parties in this relationship are considered to be not only the holder of authority (the teacher), the recipient of the authority (student), but also the electronic environment. According to the author, the virtual environment allowed the teacher to function as a partner in relation to the student in the "action" part of the course, and not manage his or her activities in a restrictive way in the course as a whole. Such manifestations of authority are seen as possible thanks to the use of electronic software, which these functions substitute. The environment sets some constraints in which the actions of students can take place; the creation of borders is thus seemingly independent of teachers. To verify the results, the feedback provided by one of the actors is used.
Full text available only in Czech - Autorita ve virtuálním vzdělávání
This paper shows how by Heidegger and Kierkegaard the freedom arises from within the linkage on the light of being; in the coming-close to the light we become free. Our freedom at last lies in the relevant taking-over of the freedom of being, including our most proper possibility to exist. The thinker assumes the accountability for the mystery of being. The human being is by its very essence as corresponding to the being, in moderate releasement (Gelassenheit) he gives oneself to the truth of being. Only in this way can one disburden of modern-age metaphysical willing, and bring forth the truth in commensurability with the mystery of nature (letting-be).
Full text available only in Czech - Heideggerovo a Kierkegaardovo pojetí svobody a odpovědnosti
The article presents structure and theoretical background of newly-launched curriculum document “The Recommended Objectives for Environmental Education for Elementary Schools”. The text analyzes all the chapters of the document, highlights changes the document brings to contemporary praxis and discusses decisions made by the authors’ group. The document defines goals and content of environmental education for elementary schools. According to it, responsible environmental behaviour is an ultimate aid of environmental education. To achieve this, teachers should focus on five key and five linking topics. The key topics are environmental sensitivity, ecological principles, environmental problems and issues, investigation skills, and action strategies. The linking topics are sense of place, environmental attitudes and values, cooperative skills, internal locus of control, and personal responsibility. The article describes theoretical underpinnings for each of the topics, gives examples of its recommended objectives and strategies, and comments critically all of them.
Full text available only in Czech - Doporučené očekávané výstupy pro environmentální výchovu